Enterobacter cloacae has been diagnosed from a skin culture along with another bacteria, by Ms. McGyver (Experiment 2).
Her GP doctor took a skin culture - it was sent to the lab, we are awaiting the paperwork to see what else is involved, there is believed to be another bacteria in the mix. (Ms. McGyver is the person who caught Morgellons from me.)
Kam**..uh, oh..what's going on? ....lol.. Plant disease??and it's relationship to fruit flies?? hot water tanks?? Enterobacter cloacae
Enterobacter cloacae Enterobacter cloacae has been isolated from papaya flowers, homogenates of papaya seeds, and the crop and mid-gut of the oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis Hendel), and recent studies claiming an apparent attractancy of D. dorsalis to E. cloacae, suggest that fruit flies may possibly be involved in the transmission of the bacterium to papaya[/size][/COLOR][/B]. ....or other fruits?? [/FONT]
It is suspected that after E. cloacae is transmitted to papaya flowers by fruit flies or other insects, the pathogen remains quiescent during fruit development until symptoms are expressed when the fruit are fully ripe.
Although E. cloacae was recovered from hot-water treatment tanks, it is believed that these tanks are not a major source of infection in processed papaya fruit because of the relatively rare occurrence of internal yellowing symptoms in the vascular tissue near the stem-end of the fruit.
Ok, let me try to explain how I'm drawing conclusions on the science level from what we already know. If we trace down Enterobacter_cloacae again in Wikipedia and we look at the Biohydrogen aspect again:
There is a very strong fermentation process happening in the Petri Dishes. The odor is a very 'fruity, musty basement smell - it is so overpowering that I had to take the Petri Dishes outside, I couldn't stand the smell of them in the house any longer.
Biohydrogen is the process that is happening inside the dish.
Biohydrogen gas can be extracted from biomass through dark fermentation and/or photofermentation by bacteria."
"Dark fermentation is the fermentative conversion of organic substrate to biohydrogen, it is a complex process manifested by diverse group of bacteria by a series of biochemical reactions involving three steps similar to anaerobic conversion.
Utilization of wastewater as a potential substrate for biohydrogen production has been drawing considerable interest in recent years especially in dark fermentation process. Industrial wastewater as fermentative substrate for H2 production addresses most of the criteria required for substrate selection viz., availability, cost and biodegradability (Angenent, et al., 2004; Kapdan and Kargi, 2006).
Chemical wastewater (Venkata Mohan, et al., 2007a,b), cattle wastewater (Tang, et al., 2008), diary process wastewater (Venkata Mohan, et al. 2007c), starch hydrolysate wastewater (Chen, et al., 2008) and designed synthetic wastewater (Venkata Mohan, et al., 2007a,2008b) have been reported to produce biohydrogen apart from wastewater treatment from dark fermentation process using selectively enriched mixed culture under acidophilic conditions.
Various wastewaters viz., paper mill wastewater (Idania, et al., 2005), starch effluent (Zhang, et al., 2003), food processing wastewater (Shin et al., 2004, van Ginkel, et al., 2005), domestic wastewater (Shin, et al., 2004, 2008e), rice winery wastewater (Yu et al., 2002), distillery and molasses based wastewater (Ren, et al., 2007, Venkata Mohan, et al., 2008a), wheat straw wastes (Fan, et al., 2006) and palm oil mill wastewater (Vijayaraghavan and Ahmed, 2006) were also studied as fermentable substrates for H2 production along with wastewater treatment. Using wastewater as a fermentable substrate facilitates both wastewater treatment apart from H2 production.
Employing mixed culture is extremely important and well-suited to the non-sterile, ever-changing, complex environment of wastewater treatment (Angenent, et al., 2004, Das, 2008). Typical anaerobic mixed cultures can not produce H2 as it is rapidly consumed by the methane-producing bacteria (Sparling, et al., 1997). Successful biological H2 production requires inhibition of H2 consuming microorganisms, such as methanogens and pre-treatment of parent culture is one of the strategies used for selecting the requisite microflora. The physiological differences between H2 producing bacteria (also referred to as acidogenic bacteria) and H2 consuming bacteria (methanogenic bacteria) form the fundamental basis behind the development of various methods used for the preparation of H2 producing seeds (Zhu and Beland, 2006).
When parent inoculum was exposed to extreme environments such as high temperature, extreme acidity and alkalinity, spore forming H2 producing bacteria such as Clostridium survived, but methanogens had no such capability. Pre-treatment helps to accelerate the hydrolysis step, thus, reducing the impact of rate limiting step and augment the anaerobic digestion to enhance the H2 generation (Kim, et al., 2003, Venkata Mohan, et al. 2007d, 2008c). Several pre-treatment procedures viz., heat-shock, chemical, acid, alkaline, oxygen-shock, load-shock, infrared, freezing, etc., were employed on a variety of mixed cultures (Sparling, et al., 1997; Logan et al., 2002; Ferchichi et al., 2005; Kim, et al., 2003, Valdez-Vazquez, et al., 2006; Kraemer and Bagley, 2007; Venkata Mohan et al., 2007c,d,2008a,e) for selective enrichment of acidogenic H2 producing inoculum.
pH also plays a critical role in governing the metabolic pathways of the organism where the activity of acidogenic group of bacteria is considered to be crucial (Fan, et al., 2006). Optimum pH range for the methanogenic bacteria is reported to be between 6.0 and 7.5, while acidogenic bacteria functions well below 6 pH (van Ginkel, et al., 2005). The pH range of 5.5-6.0 is considered to be ideal to avoid both methanogenesis and solventogenesis (Fan, et al., 2006, Venkata Mohan, et al., 2007d,2008c,d) which is the key for effective H2 generation.
In spite of advantages, the main challenge observed with fermentative H2 production process is relatively low energy conversion efficiency from the organic source. Typical H2 yields range from 1 to 2 mol of H2/mol of glucose, which results in 80-90% of the initial COD remaining in the wastewater in the form of various volatile organic acids (VFAs) and solvents, such as acetic, propionic, butyric acids and ethanol (Logan, 2004). Even under optimal conditions about 60-70% of the original organic matter remains in solution (Das and Veziroglu, 2001, Venkata Mohan et al., 2007a,2008f). Bioaugmentation with selectively enriched acidogenic consortia to enhance H2 production was also reported (Venkata Mohan, et al., 2007b). Generation and accumulation of soluble acid metabolites causes sharp drop in the system pH and inhibit the H2 production process.
Usage of unutilized carbon sources present in acidogenic process for additional biogas production sustains the practical applicability of the process. One way to utilize/recover the remaining organic matter in a usable form are to produce additional H2 by terminal integration of photo-fermentative process H2 production (Venkata Mohan, et al., 2008e) and methane by integrating acidogenic process to terminal methanogenic process (Venkata Mohan, et al., 2008b)."
"Fermentative hydrogen production plants are proposed industrial plants for the production of hydrogen. They would typically involve processes such as thermophilic fermentation, dark fermentation and/or photofermentation and gas cleaning. Biohydrogen production can also involve an element of anaerobic digestion where the methane from biogas is converted through steam reforming into hydrogen.. Biohydrogen produced from organic waste materials is a promising alternatives for sustainable energy sources."
"A thermophile is an organism — a type of extremophile — that thrives at relatively high temperatures, between 45 and 80 °C (113 and 176 °F). Many thermophiles are archaea.
Thermophiles are found in various geothermally heated regions of the Earth such as hot springs like those in Yellowstone National Park (see image) and deep sea hydrothermal vents, as well as decaying plant matter such as peat bogs and compost.
As a prerequisite for their survival, thermophiles contain enzymes that can function at high temperature. Some of these enzymes are used in molecular biology (for example, heat-stable DNA polymerases for PCR), and in washing agents.
Thus many important biotechnological processes utilize thermophilic enzymes because of their ability to withstand intense heat."
[/FONT][/SIZE]The oriental fruit fly is widespread throughout much of Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Sikkim, Myanmar, Indonesia (Celebes, Borneo, Sumatra, Java), Malaya, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, southern China, Taiwan, Philippine Islands, Micronesia, and Mariana Islands (Guam, Rota, Saipan, Tinian).[/COLOR]
soo..these countries sound sort of familiar, don't they? Remember the relationship to paper? and clothing?.....people talking about having been infested by their clothes?
In the U.S. it is currently present on all major Hawaiian islands after being accidentally introduced into Hawaii in 1944 or 1945 (Mau 2007). Four major oriental fruit fly infestations in California were eradicated between 1960 and 1997.
A new infestation of this pest was detected in San Bernardino County, California, in August 2002. In 2004, the USDA quarantined a portion of San Bernardino and Orange counties in California.
Regulatory activities in those counties ceased in December 2006 and July 2007 respectively. Several other counties in central and southern California also reported finds during 2007 (CDFA 2008).
While not established in Florida, oriental fruit flies are occasionally trapped in this state. During 1999, 17 adults were trapped in central Florida, but by September the infestation was declared eradicated.
A single male oriental fruit fly was detected in Bradenton during June 2000.
Ok, here's how we can possibly short circuit... and kill it, I suspect that some 'hanky-panky' has happened with some science group that this 'creation' has gone haywire inside of us. I don't know if the two above mentioned antibiotics will work or not, who knows what's been done in the labs?...
"To function, the membrane must conduct hydrogen ions (protons) but not electrons as this would in effect "short circuit" the fuel cell. The membrane must also not allow either gas to pass to the other side of the cell, a problem known as gas crossover.
Splitting of the hydrogen molecule is relatively easy by using a platinum catalyst.
An appropriate catalyst material for this process has not been discovered, and platinum is the best option. One promising catalyst that uses far less expensive materials—iron, nitrogen, and carbon—has long been known to promote the necessary reactions, but at rates that are far too slow to be practical."
*We need to look to see if there are any products with platinum in them that we can use?...
The attraction of male oriental fruit flies to methyl eugenol and 34 analogues was investigated quantitatively using the characteristic feeding response.
Methyl eugenol was the most active compound studied, with a feeding response to 0.01 mug, but saturation of the allyl side chain or replacement of allyl by allyloxy produced compounds almost as effective.
Replacement of the methoxy groups by methylenedioxy, methyl, or chloro groups abolished all response. The ring geometry of the methoxy groups was critical, with orthodimethoxy most active and meta-dimethoxy inactive. Replacement of methoxy with hydroxy, methylthio, or amino groups did not abolish the response.
The failure of the oriental fruit fly to respond to the methyl and chloro isosteres of methyl eugenol was contrasted with the response of a human odor panel which perceived these compounds as having weak floral odors.
Methyl eugenol is a synthetic insect lure which has been used for the following:
Antifeedant activity toward larvae of Pieris rapae crucivora of phenolethers related to METHYL EUGENOL isolated from Artemisia capillaris.
METHYL EUGENOL mixed in different ratios with Cuelure is used as an attractant for melon fly (Cadus cucurbitae Coquillett). A mixture of 10% Cuelure and 90% METHYL EUGENOL showed the highest attractant activity and remained effective for >225 days in field tests.
The tendency of mail Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to re-visit a METHYL EUGENOL source following initial exposure.
Response of male oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel, to colored plastic bucket traps baited with methyleugenol.
Eugenol / METHYL EUGENOL-containing plant extracts as cockroach attractants.
Enhanced duration of residual effectiveness against the oriental fruit fly of guava foliage treated with encapsulated insecticides and encapsulated METHYL EUGENOL.
Efficiency of METHYL EUGENOL as a male attractant for Dacus zonatus (Saunders) Diptera.
Male annihilation through mass-trapping of male flies with METHYL EUGENOL to reduce infestation of oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae in papaya.
Influence of seasonal climatic factors on the development of the METHYL EUGENOL response in male Dacus Opiliae.
Trappings of the fruit flies, Dacus species (Diptera: Tephritidae) with METHYL EUGENOL in orchards.
Influence of age, nutrition and time of day on the responsiveness of male Dacus opiliae to the synthetic lure, METHYL EUGENOL.
Efficacy of METHYL EUGENOL as male attractant for Dacus dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae).
Attractancy of synthetic compounds related to METHYL EUGENOL for the oriental fruit fly and the melon fly.
Attractiveness of METHYL EUGENOL to the melon fly in Taiwan.
Use of METHYL EUGENOL for attraction and trapping of fruit fly.
Methyl eugenol is a naturally occurring material found in a variety of food sources, including spices, oils, and nutritionally important foods such as bananas and oranges.
Given its natural occurrence, a broad cross-section of the population is likely exposed. The availability of biomonitoring and toxicology data offers an opportunity to examine how biomonitoring data can be integrated into risk assessment.
Methyl eugenol has been used as a biomarker of exposure. An analytical method to detect methyl eugenol in human blood samples is well characterized but not readily available.
Human studies indicate that methyl eugenol is short-lived in the body, and despite the high potential for exposure through the diet and environment, human blood levels are relatively low.
The toxicology studies in animals demonstrate that relatively high-bolus doses administered orally result in hepatic neoplasms.
However, an understanding is lacking regarding how this effect relates to the exposures that result when food containing methyl eugenol is consumed......wonder why...or not?
Overall, the level of methyl eugenol detected in biomonitoring studies indicates that human exposure is several orders of magnitude lower than the lowest dose used in the bioassay.
Furthermore, there are no known health effects in humans that result from typical dietary exposure to methyl eugenol.
See....... The most commonly used membrane is Nafion by DuPont, which relies on liquid water humidification of the membrane to transport protons en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nafion
Sensors Nafion has found use in the production of sensors, which with application in ion-selective, metallicized, optical, and biosensors. What makes Nafion especially interesting is its demonstration in biocompatibility. Nafion has been shown to be stable in cell cultures as well as the human body, and there is considerable research towards the production of higher sensitivity glucose sensors.
I'm reading a journal paper here about chitin involvement with EC. Hasn't chitin been shown to be a part of the Morgellons fibers by someone's research? I think Kritts started a chitin thread here on the site?
I KNOW that polymers are somehow involved in my Morgellons... my ear has an unbreakable chain that is going up the length of the pinna:
After cellulose, chitin is the most abundant biopolymer."
*This sounds like what is happening...
"Characteristics of plant chitinases: Plant chitinases are known as pathogen related proteins (PRPs), because chitinases along with β-1,3-glucanases are induced by pathogens (Wyatt et al., 1991; Abeles et al., 1971; Selitrennikoff, 2001). They also inhibit the mycelial growth of many pathogenic fungi in vitro. Most of the chitinases produced are endo-type which liberate N-acetylchitooligosaccharides from chitin. N-acetylchitooligosaccharides are considered to be elicitor, evoking various defense responses. These include the production of phytoalexins, induction of PRPs, generation of active oxygen species and lignification (Fanta et al., 2003). Plant chitinases can be subdivided into five classes based on their amino acid similarity and presence of signal peptide, a hevein (chain binding) domain, a hinge region, a catalytic domain and a C-terminal extension.
Microbial chitinases: Relatively little is known about the number, diversity and function of chitinase produced by microorganisms, even though chitin is one of the most abundant polymers in nature. Chitinases find application in biocontrol, offer an attractive alternative or supplement for the control of plant diseases."
Biogeographical distribution of functional chitinases:
**Possibly a way to break down the chitin (polymer) aspect? -
"When chitin degradation by the soil bacterium Serratia marcescens was investigated, it was found that in addition to chitinases, the bacterium also makes a protein called CBP21 which binds to and disrupts the chitin polymer making it more accessible to degradation by chitinases. It have been reported that adding CBP21 dramatically speeds up the degradation of chitin by chitinases. CBP21 works by binding to chitin through highly specific interactions that disrupt the chitin structure making the individual sugar chains in the chitin polymer more amenable to enzymatic degradation (Suzuki et al., 1998; Vaaje-Kolstad et al., 2005).
The discovery of this new protein that participates in chitin degradation has many potential applications. For example, transgenic plants that express both chitinases and CBP21 would be able to combat fungi by degrading chitin in their cell walls. A better understanding of natural chitin turnover increases our ability to interfere with chitin metabolism in insects and other microorganisms (Broglie et al., 1991; Jach et al., 1995; Ding et al., 1995; Vaaje-Kolstad et al., 2005). "
"When chitin degradation by the soil bacterium Serratia marcescens was investigated, it was found that in addition to chitinases, the bacterium also makes a protein called CBP21 which binds to and disrupts the chitin polymer making it more accessible to degradation by chitinases. It have been reported that adding CBP21 dramatically speeds up the degradation of chitin by chitinases. CBP21 works by binding to chitin through highly specific interactions that disrupt the chitin structure making the individual sugar chains in the chitin polymer more amenable to enzymatic degradation."
Serratia marcescens? CBP21? **The final breakdown inside the body is done by enzymatic degradation, which we already believed to be true. We first have to weaken the chitin.
"Serratia marcescens is a species of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae. A human pathogen, S. marcescens is involved in nosocomial infections, particularly catheter-associated bacteremia, urinary tract infections and wound infections, and is responsible for 1.4% of nosocomial bacteremia cases in the United States. It is commonly found in the respiratory and urinary tracts of hospitalized adults and in the gastrointestinal system of children.
Due to its ubiquitous presence in the environment, and its preference for damp conditions, S. marcescens is commonly found growing in bathrooms (especially on tile grout, shower corners, toilet water line, and basin), where it manifests as a pink discoloration and slimy film feeding off phosphorous containing materials or fatty substances (such as soap and shampoo residue). Once established, complete eradication of the organism is often difficult, but can be accomplished by application of a bleach-based disinfectant. Rinsing and drying surfaces after use can also prevent the establishment of the bacteria by removing its food source and making the environment less hospitable.
S. marcescens may also be found in environments such as dirt, supposedly "sterile" places, and the subgingival biofilm of teeth. Due to this, and the fact that S. marcescens produces a reddish-orange tripyrrole pigment called prodigiosin, S. marcescens may cause extrinsic staining of the teeth. The biochemical pathway illustrating the production of prodigiosin by S. marcescens is unknown except for the final two steps. In these steps, a monopyrrole (MAD) and a bipyrrole (MBC) undergo a condensation reaction by way of a condensing enzyme to ultimately form prodigiosin."
**Is this the red we're seeing in the lesions?
"Prodigiosin is the red pigment produced by many strains of the bacterium Serratia marcescens, and some other unrelated microbial strains, such as Vibrio psychroerythrus, Streptomyces griseoviridis, and Hahella chejuensis. Its name is derived from "prodigious" - something marvellous."
"it manifests as a pink discoloration and slimy film "
This is the "pink stuff" that is growing in my bathtub when water drips and in my toilets when the water sits for a long period of time without flushing them! SM is in my water lines or supply...
Bio farming system plays a vital role in horticultural and planting cash crops.
For preserving and maintaining biological control, bio-control agents are used. Bio-control agents are most often insects which are adaptable to the environment as they are newly released utilizing the weed for food, home and reproduction. They might consume leaves, flower parts or immature seeds. Bio control agents do not completely extirpate populations of their host plants although they reduce the weed density to an acceptable level or to reproductive potential of individual plants.
Triaccosal: It is one of the microorganism which is based on Trichoderma viride.
Fluroissal: It is a bio-control agent which is microorganism based on Pseudomonas Fluorescens.
Beauveria Bassiana: It is a fungus which belongs to the entomopathogenic fungi that grows naturally in soils throughout the world, acts as a parasite on various insect species and used as a biological insecticide to control a number of pests such as termites, whitefly, different beetles.
Verticillium lecanii: It is a genus of fungi belonging to Ascomycota, comprising saprotrophs and parasites of higher plants, insects, nematodes, mollusc eggs and other fungi.
Metarrhizium anisopliae: It is a entomopathogenic fungus with a wide range of host species. Metarrhizium anisopliae is a common pathogen of insects and used to control insect populations.
Gliocladium virens: It is a mitosporic filamentous fungus considered as a contaminant widely distributed in soil and decaying vegetation.
Pythium oligandrum: It is an Oomycete which is a parasite of many fungi including Botrytis, Fusarium and Phytophthora. Pythium oligandrum is a biocontrol agent in the form of an oospore soil treatment, which reduces pathogen load and concomitant plant disease.
Talaromyces flavus: It is an ascomycete fungus found in the soil or on rotting organic substrates such as fruits. Talaromyces flavus is used to control Verticillium wilt of eggplant which is caused by Verticillium dahliae.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal: It is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a plant. In Arbuscular mycorrhizal association the fungus colonize the roots of a host plant either intracellularly or extracellularly.
Bacillus subtilis: It is a gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium commonly found in soil. Bacillus subtilis has the ability to form a tough, protective endospore, allowing the organism to tolerate extreme environmental conditions.
Enterobacter cloacae: It is a genus of common gram-negative, facultatively-anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Several strains of the bacteria are pathogenic and cause infections in hospitalized hosts.
Serratia entomophila: It is a microbial control agent and has a virus like structure. A granular formulation of Serratia entomophila has been developed to improve shelf-life and storage characteristics of this bacterium, which causes amber disease in the grass grub.
Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki: It is a gram-positive, soil dwelling bacterium of the genus Bacillus. Bacillus thuringiensis occurs naturally in the gut of caterpillars of various types of moths and butterflies as well as on the dark surface of plants.
Nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV): It belongs to the sub group Baculoviruses which is a virus affecting insects, moths and butterflies.
It all seems to fit...bacteria, fungi, viruses, insects....Is Morgellons Disease caused by crop biocontrol agents? ..leaching into our water systems? or even over our food?
creepfinder: Creepfinder says, This scabdragger dude will poison you to death, destroy your organs with unapproved animal medication
Sept 8, 2014 19:41:54 GMT -5
creepfinder: Beware of idiots with unapproved drugs, if it sounds stupid, usually it is. The idiot that posted the thank you was the idiot that will try to kill you with poison, some people have have mental problems,
Sept 8, 2014 19:45:09 GMT -5
Sept 8, 2014 19:45:18 GMT -5
creepfinder: It is not a slur but do not get dragged into the rhetoric that they are scientists, doctors, have laboratorys, or simply that THEY KNOW SOMETHING that they can not prove.
Sept 8, 2014 19:51:24 GMT -5
creepfinder: Baraka Obam worries that some idiot will poison you, before you can heal up destroy your organs with poison, do not fall for these self proclaimed healers, they offer a bleak future
Sept 8, 2014 19:54:07 GMT -5
Baraka Obam: If you look closely you will see the use of three words that says, the people poisoner himself is back , that is troll, research and protocol, posting thank you and kudos to himself, get it, unbalanced, BEWARE!!!
Sept 8, 2014 20:16:24 GMT -5
RC: Prove your not paid to be a debunker!
Sept 9, 2014 4:45:46 GMT -5
RC: YOU KNOW BO IS A PAID DE BUNKER LOOK: HE IS ON EVERY POST, AND BASICALLY HAS RUN OFF EVERYONE HERE. HE HAS THE WORST CASE AND KNOWS EVERYTHING, ESPECIALLY HOW TO ARGUE!!!
Sept 9, 2014 19:06:44 GMT -5
THE PROOF: PROOF, is this, I will never, ever tell anyone to give unapproved animal drugs to their children until they show result or die, anyone that would do such a thing is unbalanced after you or your child would die they can argue, argue that it was your fault,
Sept 9, 2014 19:24:45 GMT -5
THE PROOF: My argument, insane drunks and drug abusers should not write babble uncontrollably about using something that may do more harm than good.
Sept 9, 2014 19:28:07 GMT -5
THE PROOF: one last item, I will debate anyone that speaks about seeing bugs as our tormentor, sorry, it is my right to be considered credible, anyone that would like to debate anything IN A ADULT MANNER I have no problem with.
Sept 9, 2014 19:31:44 GMT -5
THE PROOF: Spoiled children have no special rights, sorry, that will not get you anywhere. I expect anyone that cares about other people to make sure they STOP anyone that suggests people here poison themselves until the cows come home. BEWARE!!
Sept 9, 2014 19:38:26 GMT -5
Baraka Obam: The man suggesting treating babies and adults with unapproved animal drugs said, I AM THE WAY, he may very well be the way, the way to a very early grave or a hospital stay one can not afford. Take CARE and BEWARE.
Sept 9, 2014 23:16:25 GMT -5
Baraka Obam: Please do not take horse drugs people, no matter what this person says.
Sept 10, 2014 3:59:00 GMT -5
Bear: hello n e one here
Sept 10, 2014 15:41:26 GMT -5